When Craterus arrived at Cilicia in 323 BCE, news reached him of Alexander's death. The term Diadochi as an adjective is being extended beyond its original use, such as "Diadochi Chronicle," which is nowhere identified as such, or Diadochi kingdoms, "the kingdoms that emerged," even past the Age of the Epigoni. When Alexander the Great died on June 10, 323 BCE, he left behind a huge empire which comprised many essentially independent territories. This war is divided into two phases: the first, which covers from 321 to 301 BC, confronted the “Unitarians” and the “Separatists”. Kincaid, C A.Successors of Alexander the Great. When Alexander was a teen-ager, Philip was planning a military solution to the contention with the Persian Empire. They are not necessarily significant or determinative of what happened next. Throughout his campaign against the Persians, Alexander the Great remained aware of the many troubles plaguing his homeland of Macedon. Droysen's "Hellenistic" and "Diadochi Periods" are canonical today. Successors is a card-driven movement strategy game that focuses on the war to succeed Alexander The Great. The Hetairoi were simply a fixed pool of de facto general officers, without any or with changing de jure rank, whom Alexander could assign where needed. Antigonus I Monophthalmus and his son Demetrius I of Macedon were pitted against the coalition of three other companions of Alexander: Cassander, ruler of Macedon; Lysimachus, ruler of Thrace; and Seleucus I Nicator, ruler of Babylonia and Persia. The Battle of Ipsus at the end of the Fourth War of the Diadochi finalized the breakup of the unified Empire of Alexander. Grote cites no references for the use of Diadochi but his criticism of Johann Gustav Droysen gives him away. Lendering, Jona. Learn more about the world with our collection of regional and country maps. The other cavalry generals who had supported Perdiccas were rewarded in the partition of Babylon by becoming satraps of the various parts of the Empire. To settle the question whether his empire should disintegrate or survive as a unity, and, if so, under whose rule, they fought several full-scale wars. All these armies constituted a fatal drain on the population of Macedon. One of the challenges that Alexander’s successors faced was to legitimize themselves as the heirs of Alexander in the eyes of the local populations. The Hetairoi vanished with Alexander, to be replaced instantaneously by the Diadochi, men who knew where they had stood, but not where they would stand now. FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century. Plutarch reports that Alexander and his mother bitterly reproached him for his numerous affairs among the women of his court.[7]. Athens and other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Antigonus was killed, but his son Demetrius took a large part of Macedonia and continued his father's dynasty. Alexander's death that year, however, prevented the order from being carried out. Staff meetings to adjust command structure were nearly a daily event in Alexander's army. After a period of short-lived attempts by Demetrius I, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Lysimachus, and others to hold Macedon, Antigonus II established himself as king. [13] In an 1843 work, "History of the Epigoni" (Geschichte der Epigonen) he details the kingdoms of the Epigoni, 280-239 BCE. “Alexander’s successors: the Diadochi.” n.d. http://www.livius.org/di-dn/diadochi/diadochi.htm (accessed Oct. 12, 2009). [18], (2) Satrap at Partition of Babylon; possibly Nicanor of Stageira Priests in Hellenistic sanctuaries inflicted corporal punishment on criminals. In June Alexander fought his last great battle on the left bank of the Hydaspes. Not sure about the geography of the middle east? However, with the royal family in Babylon, the Regent Perdiccas assumed this responsibility until the royal household could return to Macedonia. These wars that happened after the death of Alexander for the control and rule of his empire are known as War of the Successors. After his death, war soon broke out again and the fragmentation of the empire began in earnest. The prefix dia- changes the meaning slightly to add a social expectation to the received. Grote may have been right, but he ignores entirely Droysen's main thesis, that the concepts of "successors" and "sons of successors" were innovated and perpetuated by historians writing contemporaneously or nearly so with the period. He fought off the Galatian invaders and used his long reign (277–239 BC) to restore Macedon economically. There is no uniform agreement concerning exactly which historical persons fit the description, or the territorial range over which the role was in effect, or the calendar dates of the period. Grote uses Droysen's terminology but gives him no credit for it. Polyperchon allied himself to Eumenes in Asia, but was driven from Macedonia by Cassander, and fled to Epirus with the infant king Alexander IV and his mother Roxana. They created an ongoing expectation among the Hetairoi of receiving an important and powerful command, if only for a short term. Following Ptolemy’s successes in the Wars of the Diadochi, Seleucus, then a senior officer in the Macedonian Royal Army, received Babylonia. In ancient Greek, diadochos[2] is a noun (substantive or adjective) formed from the verb, diadechesthai, "succeed to,"[3] a compound of dia- and dechesthai, "receive. Perdiccas' marriage to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. The upcoming fourth edition of this game has an updated board layout, charts, cards, and a revised rulebook that fixes issues with previous editions. Antipater, commander of Alexander's forces in Greece and regent of the Macedonian throne in Alexander's absence, would lead a force of fresh troops back to Persia to join Alexander while Craterus would become regent in his place. In the east, Perdiccas largely left Alexander's arrangements intact – Taxiles and Porus governed over their kingdoms in India; Alexander's father-in-law Oxyartes governed Gandara; Sibyrtius governed Arachosia and Gedrosia; Stasanor governed Aria and Drangiana; Philip governed Bactria and Sogdia; Phrataphernes governed Parthia and Hyrcania; Peucestas governed Persis; Tlepolemus had charge over Carmania; Atropates governed northern Media; Archon got Babylonia; and Arcesilaus governed northern Mesopotamia. Amidst the cheering onlookers Philip swore that Macedonia was not large enough for Alexander. and threw a cup at him. As there are no modern equivalents, it has been necessary to reconstruct the role from the ancient sources. [5] Some important English reflexes are dogma, "a received teaching," decent, "fit to be received," paradox, "against that which is received." The classic wargame of divvying up Alexander The Great’s empire, following his death, is about the receive a new edition from Ares Games and Phalanx Games.The fourth edition of Successors promises streamlined game play while maintaining the same core aspects of the original design grognards have come to love over the years. Alexander’s Heirs offers a narrative account of the approximately forty years following the death of Alexander the Great, during which his generals vied for control of his vast empire, and through their conflicts and politics ultimately created the Hellenistic Age.. Offers an account of the power struggles between Alexander’s rival generals in the forty year period following his death The previous history of the Greek city-states and of the kingdom of Macedoniais covered elsewhere. Antipater was an adviser to King Philip II, Alexander's father, a role he continued under Alexander. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. The Macedonian phalanx, armed with the sarissa, a spear 6 metres (20 ft) long, had been developed and perfected by Philip II through rigorous training, and Alexander used its speed and manoeuvrability to great effect against larger but more dispa… Its chief office was the basileia, or monarchy, the chief officer being the basileus, now the signatory title of Philip. Thus began the remarkable spread of the Hellenistic (Greek, rather than Macedonian) civilization. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the protection of Alexander's family. Diadochi (Διάδοχοι) is an ancient Greek word that currently modern scholars use to refer primarily to persons acting a role that existed only for a limited time period and within a limited geographic range. Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under Alexander during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. In 323 BCE, Craterus was ordered by Alexander to march his veterans back to Macedon and assume Antipater's position while Antipater was to march to Persia with fresh troops. The Somatophylakes were the seven bodyguards of Alexander. Macedonia’s victory over the Greek city states at the battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) made Philip, king of Macedonia, the most powerful figure in Greece. In 336 BCE, at the age of 20, Alexander "received the kingship" (parelabe ten basileian). In the edition of 1869 he defines them as "great officers of Alexander, who after his death carved kingdoms for themselves out of his conquests."[9]. The Successors. He asked the Macedonians to pray for an "heir to the kingship" (diadochon tes basileias). Alexander IV was the son of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian) and Alexander's wife Roxana (a Sogdian). The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid Dynasty, which existed from 312 BCE-63 BCE. In 310 BCE Cassander secretly murdered Alexander IV and Roxana. Although Eumenes defeated the rebels in Asia Minor, in a battle at which Craterus was killed, it was all for nought, as Perdiccas himself was murdered by his own generals Peithon, Seleucus, and Antigenes during an invasion of Egypt. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. A rump Seleucid kingdom survived in Syria until finally conquered by Pompey in 64 BCE. Alexander tried to establish Greek customs and culture into the empire he took over from Persia. She despised Antipater, and he referred to her as a "sharp-tongued shrew." Not long after, prompted by Demaratus the Corinthian to mend the dissension in his house, Philip sent Demaratus to bring Alexander home. Ptolemy came to terms with Perdiccas's murderers, making Peithon and Arrhidaeus regents in his place, but soon these came to a new agreement with Antipater at the Partition of Triparadisus. His presence on the battlefield seemed to ensure immediate victory. Doherty, Paul C. The death of Alexander the Great : what–or who–really killed the young conqueror of the known world?. c. Ptolemaic Kingdom. Meanwhile, the news of Alexander's death had inspired a revolt in Greece, known as the Lamian War. Paul I of Russia was the son and successor of Catherine the Great, who took the Romanov throne away from her feeble-minded husband, Tsar Peter III, and had him killed in 1762, an event which ever afterwards preyed on the mind of their son, then a boy of … Alexander was acquiring dominion over state after state. The Epigoni he defined as "Sons of the Diadochi" (Diadochensöhne). Without a chosen successor, there was almost immediately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to who his successor should be. Notably in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Check our encyclopedia for a gloss on thousands of topics from biographies to the table of elements. `` Hellenistic '' and `` Diadochi Periods '' are canonical today Macedoniais covered elsewhere by Seleucus I Nicator the... Great 's empire Pompey in 64 BCE rivals executed in order to secure throne. 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